German and Italian Empires in 1914 | The 20th century | World history | Khan Academy

As we’ve already talked
about, as we exit the 1800s and we get into the early 1900s
and we approach World War I, the various powers
of Europe were really on this race for empire. It was a part of
national prestige. And it helped build
national wealth. But of the major powers,
Germany and Italy were relatively new
as unified states. The British Empire– they had
been building their empire for hundreds of years. The Germans, on the
other hand, even though they have a very old
culture going back hundreds– or you could argue thousands–
of years, as a unified state, they only existed since 1871. And that’s only after
the Franco-Prussian War, which allowed the Prussians
to unify all of Germany. And the Italians only became
fully unified in 1870, also due to the Franco-Prussian War. Because the French had
to focus on the Germans, had to focus on
the Prussians, they couldn’t protect the
Papal States anymore. And so that allowed the Italians
to unify it under their a rule. So by the time we get to 1914,
the beginning of World War I, these two powers, they were
also on their race for empire. But they were only about
43 or 44 years old. And so they hadn’t
been able to build as extensive of an
empire as France and, especially, as extensive
of an empire as Great Britain. But this map right
over here shows how far their actual empires did extend. Italy had control
of Libya, Eritrea, and parts of what’s
today Somalia. And Germany had
control– it also had holdings in Africa,
possessions in Africa. Togoland, which is
modern-day Togo; Cameroon, which makes
up– modern-day Cameroon is part of German
Southwest Africa. That’s now known as Namibia. German East Africa, which is now
Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi. And Germany also had holdings in
the Pacific and even in China. These are the Pacific Islands
that Germany had possession of. It had German New Guinea. And it even had control
of the town of Tsingtao. And that actually is culturally
interesting for those of you watching
this video in 2013. Tsingtao is now a very
popular Chinese brand of beer. One of the more– I
think it’s the number two in the market Chinese beer. And it’s associated with China. But it was actually started
by German settlers in Tsingtao in 1903. So actually its roots
are with the Germans, who obviously have a long
tradition of producing beers. And so Tsingtao– you could
argue it’s a Chinese beer. It’s produced in China. But it had its roots in
German imperial rule.

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