Spanish Conquest of the Incan Empire
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Spanish Conquest of the Incan Empire

500 years ago, atop the snowcapped Andes,
in a still barely mapped continent, thousands of meters above sea level, two new empires
smashed into each other, in a historical collision that reverberates into the modern day. Conquistador and Sapa Inca, men from different
worlds, will clash. The arquebus and huaraca will meet and Tawantinsuyu,
the Land of Four Parts Together will be undone. In 1528 Hernán Cortes had just returned from
Mexico bringing tales of conquest along with unimaginable treasures. The Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles
the 5th received him and his riches in Toledo. As Cortés impressed the royal court, another
veteran of the New World had arrived at the city. It was Francisco Pizarro, the second cousin
of Cortés. Pizarro had arranged to meet the King and
planned to impress him with gifts. Gold, silver, feathers, natives, and bizarre
creatures unknown outside of the Andes. Pizarro told his King of the magical land
of Peru, home to a native Empire that Pizarro assured him could be conquered in his name. On the 26th of July 1529, Pizarro was issued
a royal license to conquer this new land and named the Governor of Peru. Armed with a royal permission, Pizarro set
off recruiting potential conquistadors. He returned to his hometown of Trujillo, gathered
his four brothers, Juan, Francisco, Gonzalo, and Hernando, and then set sail for the Americas
in January 1530. The Sapa Inca, Huayna Capac had recently subdued
much of what is now Ecuador when reports began trickling in. Strange men had traded with the city of Tumbez. Alongside these reports came others, that
were much more horrific. Chasquis runners arrived daily informing the
Sapa Inca that a disease had appeared in the north and was killing thousands. Nothing like it had ever been seen before
Plagues were unknown to the Inca so this strange sickness, known to us as smallpox, ravaged
the population. The Eurasian disease was not brought by Pizarro
however, as it arrived slightly before he did, creeping in from North and Central America. In the following years, up to 90% of the Empire
would succumb to the disease. Sometime around 1527 the Sapa Inca Huayna
Capac and his heir died from smallpox along millions of their subjects. Two years before Pizarro had petitioned the
King of Spain, Eurasian germs had initiated the conquest for him. With the succession now unclear and the realm
devastated, the sons of Huayna Capac both tried to claim the throne and tossed the Empire
into chaos. Atahualpa, who possessed much less territory
than Huascar, controlled his dead father’s veteran legions and slowly pushed down from
Quito towards Cuzco. During the final bloody climax of the war
in 1532 Huacar’s remaining armies were smashed outside of Cuzco and he was captured by Atahualpa’s
generals. Atahualpa has camped over 900 kilometers away
in the town of Cajamarca, with a small portion of his army, awaiting news of the battle. Even with the Inca’s exceptional highway
and their tireless chasquis, it would take five days for word of the victory to reach
Atahualpa. There, in Cajamarca Atahualpa planned his
eventual coronation as the supreme ruler of the Inca world. He was eager to get word from his generals
and set off on his victory march towards his new capital. But there was just one small detail that he
needed to deal with at the moment. Reports were coming in from his chiefs that
a small band of 168 foreigners, some of whom were riding giant llamas, was causing havoc
on the coast and it appeared they were now marching straight for Cajamarca. Atahualpa was curious and rather than have
these men killed he decided to see them and their strange llamas himself. What could 168 do against his 50,000 soldiers? He had agreed to meet the Spaniards in the
central plaza of Cajamarca. This was a ceremonial meeting between his
vast empire and some lowly visitors. So on Saturday, November 16, 1532, Atahualpa
entered the square at Cajamarca followed by 6,000 of his barely armed men. A battle was not expected. Atahualpa was quite confident, as just the
day before he heard of his victory at Cuzco and the capture of his rival brother Huascar. So, this was a day of celebration. Once he had his meeting with this odd band
of foreigners, he could march south and have his glorious coronation. Pizarro and his men had planned to emulate
Cortés: they would capture Atahualpa, thus cutting off the head of the Inca Empire and
paralyzing it. Atahualpa as Sapa Inca was Supreme ruler of
the Empire and it could not function without him. Pizarro had hidden his men in the buildings
surrounding the square and stationed the artillery and arquebuses on the far side of the square
ready to fire. Like too many fans in a tiny football stadium,
the Inca troops crowded into the square, which had only two narrow exits. Not a single Spaniard could be seen. As the sun began to set, nothing could be
heard in the square except for a slight breeze. The fear inside the stone buildings was incalculable. Pedro Pizarro said, “I heard that many Spaniards
urinated on themselves without noticing it from sheer terror.” Eventually, two men appeared from the buildings
and approached Atahualpa. Vincente de Valverde, a Dominican friar, and
an inexperienced native translator. The friar read following to Atahualpa. “I request and require you… to recognize
the Church as your Mistress and as Governess of the World and Universe… And if you do not do this… with the help
of God we shall come mightily against you, and we shall make war on you everywhere and
in every way that we can, and we shall subject you to the yoke and obedience of the Church
and His Majesty, and we shall seize your women and children, and we shall make them slaves,
to sell and dispose of as His Majesty commands. And we shall do all the evil and damage to
you that we are able. And I must insist that the deaths and destruction
that result from this will be all your fault!” This was the Requerimiento, a document read
aloud to the native people’s of the New World. Informing them of Spain’s divine right to
conquer these lands in the name of God. Valverde then approached Atahualpa and offered
him a bible. Atahualpa had heard reports of the men’s
fascination with these objects, but he had no way to contextualize what this was or how
to interact with it. He had had enough with these foreigners now
and their disrespect for the Inca diplomatic customs. Atahualpa scolded Valverde and the Spanish
for stealing from warehouses and killing Inca chiefs and proceed to toss the book aside. Valverde, horrified at this perceived act
of extreme blasphemy sprinted towards the stone buildings, shouting, “Come out! Come out, Christians! Come at these enemy dogs who reject the things
of God!”. The square again fell silent. With loud roars the cannons and arquebuses
soon fired directly into the mass of warriors, spewing out smoke and metal shrapnel. Inca soldiers, shocked by the sounds, soon
saw beasts riding towards them. The Spanish war cry “Santiago” was screamed
as men rushed out of the buildings. A massacre ensued, as the panic-stricken Inca
force tried to retreat out of the tiny square. Dazed masses of soldiers ran for the narrow
exits. It was impossible to escape: thousands died
trampled under their comrades or horses. Chopping through the men holding the royal
litter Pizarro and his men grabbed Atahualpa and dragged him back into one of the stone
buildings. Just that morning he was basking in a victory
that took four years to complete, Atahualpa was now, at sunset, prisoner to an unknown
group of people. The Inca Empire, which only just finished
a destructive civil war was now involved in the highest stakes hostage situation of all
time. The survivors of the massacre ran from the
square and the rest of the Inca army now leaderless dispersed into the countryside. Atahualpa noted the excitement the Spaniards
had at finding gold trinkets amongst the wreckage. He concluded that these were pirates from
some faraway land. If he could give them enough gold, then they
would return to their ships and begone. He told Pizarro that in exchange for his life
and freedom he would fill the room they were in with gold and twice over with silver. Atahualpa delivered on his promise. For months the greatest treasures and artifacts
of the Inca empire poured into Cajamarca. The room was filled, and everything was melted
down into ingots, which is why gold or silver Inca artifacts are so rare today. In the end, the gold totaled 1.3 million pesos
de oro, or around 400m 2018 US Dollars, to be divided between between168 men and the
King of Spain. As the ransom poured in so did more Spanish
troops. Diego de Almagro, Pizarro’s business partner,
arrived with an extra 153 men. The fact that more Spaniards have arrived
made it clear that this was an invasion force. These men were here to stay. After the Inca fulfilled their promise, it
became obvious to Pizarro and his men that Atahualpa had outlived his usefulness and
was now only a liability. If he were rescued they would not be able
to defeat the resistance he would organize. On July 26th, 1533, Atahualpa was brought
into the main square of Cajamarca and was tied to a wooden stake. The native population gathered around in awe
at what was happening. Atahualpa was not only the supreme ruler of
the Empire but also their god. Watching this happen must have shaken the
entire world-view of the local people. Valverde, the same friar that offered him
a bible month before, came to him and offered to be baptized. If he rejected this offer, he would be burned
alive. No fate could be worse for Atahualpa. If his body were not perfectly preserved like
previous Emperor’s, then he would not pass on correctly to the afterlife. He accepted and was quickly baptized. Still, he was then strangled to death as a
Christian. The conquistadors soon left Cajamarca and
began the long trek to Cuzco. As the square and that lonely stake in its
center faded into the distance, Pizarro and his men must have felt confident that this
wealthy empire was already in their hands. But the conquest of the Inca was far from
over. Thank you for watching this video in our series
on the Pre-Columbian Civilisations. The next episode will cover the Collapse of
the Inca Empire. Subscribe and press the alarm bell to get
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100 thoughts on “Spanish Conquest of the Incan Empire

  1. Sorry for the double upload. Really nothing we could have done about it. The first upload was laggy for many viewers. Once again, sorry.

  2. Europeans conducted themselves in the new world with criminality they could NOT at home. They the same today tear up the Mideast.


    Here is my drawing of an Inca Warrior my wife to be is Peruvian she helped with the clothes

  4. Interesting and scary how smallpox got to the Inca's from the Aztec/Mayan's so quickly while the people might not of even been aware of each other, though they probably where to some extent.

  5. Majority of natives died by inevitable diseases from the old world, thus blaming Europe for all the deaths makes no sense. No matter who found who, the natives for destined to die in droves

  6. The fact that the Inca had an expanisive empire shows that the act of conquest is not a european evil, but a human evil. The Inca and Aztec were theologically driven just as the Spanish were. Although I do believe it does the pre-Columbian civilizations a diservice to describe them as weak primitive lambs for the slaughter. Instead, they were a strong and proud civilization that lost the game of human domination.

  7. Wanneer jou aanwezigheid en jou jokes zo zinloos beginnen te worden dat de wereld en het all-universum te klein is om met jouw te delen en naar je om te kijken..
    Incest door je eigen familie…dus cannibalisme op z'n zachtste vorm gezecht
    Joy, jouw kinderen verdienen niets beter en hetzelfde

    Hey historicus, jij die audio visueel history neerzet op social media, ben je zeker dat dit 500 jaar geleden plaatsvond

  8. Great video, nice visuals, and superb narration.
    This perfectly highlights just how despicable, disrespectful, ignorant and disgusting the Spanish were, and to a certain extent still are!

  9. i could not finish the video it saddens me to much 🙁 my entire culture was stripped and burnt in the name of god, what a joke right :/

  10. The lesson here is that history is more nuanced than a 13 minute video. Seems like most people here think that less than 200 Spanish soldiers conquered the Inca. The reality was that Pizarro found thousands of allies to fight against the Inca just like Cortes. Unfortunately, the written histories and the yt videos based on them would rather not give credit to native allies that made the conquests possible. Not fathomable now is that Spanish hegemony was relatively nicer than Incan totalitarianism.

  11. Imagine the wonderful world we would live in if the INCANS, MAYANS and AZTECS were still around instead of the pathetic spanish…

  12. Oi oi oi, oi oi oi oi, vai Pizarro uno di noi. In culo ai peruviani. Vi hanno rappresentato bene in questi 40 anni. Quando cominciate a franare almeno sapete perché. È una questione di comunicatività. Se vi fosse interessato, potevate mandare messaggi diversi.

  13. Humans enemies is human,…the Spanish concern is only a gold,..not gives a Holly teaching of the Bible. I feel shame to Catholic christian with this storytelling. F*** Pope.

  14. 4:52 right side drawing. Look how majestic the young Inca looked with his crown, clothes and imperial weapon/scepter, it reminds me of roman caesars. No european or asian king had this great majesty maybe only roman emperors or chinese emperors.

  15. The scourge of Syphilis was also a lethal weapon to kill off the masses of indigenous population. What Spaniard WOULDN'T have had a tryst with a fair indigenous maiden far away from their wives, and bethrohed loved one? There was no cure, and they used toxic mercury as a primitive, and incurable topical treatment. I doubt they would have ingested the poisonous element in a clueless and feeble attempt to eradicate this deadly no remidial death sentence. Yeah, small pox, and raging syphilis just might do it to the indigenous in both North, and South America.

  16. the Inca empire was richer than the Aztecs, they knew all kinds of metal alloys, they handled advanced mathematics and their constructions are a marvel of modern engineering, besides they domesticated hundreds of plants like potatoes, which fed the whole world.

  17. It's a Double Cross! Teaching the DOGMATIC DOCTRINE of MILLSTONE!( Revelation 18:21-24) Repent and Reform! ISAIAH 46:11/EZEK.17:7,8 GOLDEN EAGLE of the EAST!

  18. Lesson: White men weilding religion as weapon, bent on pillage stand champion of Carnage in all the history of the world.

  19. Spaniards founded in lima the first university in America ( 1551 ) and brought 4000 years of civilization to the new world. That's why Hispanic America has an occidental culture.

  20. And the black legend continues… Stanley G. Payne, Charles Fletcher and many more of the anglo sphere have been debunking these false accusation for decades, not to mention the archeological, demographic and political evidence that shows how the conquest of the americas was not under the genocide of the naturals, but by mutual convenience, since most of the tribes where subjugated to others like the mayans or the incas, who waged wars to take sacrificial prisoners for their gods. But of course these kind of videos will never show how Spain dedicated so much efforts in preserving the language of the natives, by studying them and creating dictionaries, or books transalted to Nahuatl, or other languages, you will never find in these kind of videos the wonders the Spanish built in the Americas, like the 33 universities, or the other 3 in the Phillipines, (one of them Santo tomas de Manila, turns out to be the oldest university in whole Asia) the aqueducts, Monasteries, Cathedrals, Roads, Medicine, Arquitecture, Science, and many many more. You will only find the bad things and obviously exaggerated to make Spain look like a demon, which was the final goal fo the anglosphere rulled by anger and envy towards the gratest Empire ever built, something they never where able to achieve. Instead they segregated, killed and enslaved others in order to shine, you can all go ask the natives of new zealand, australia, north america, canada, india, and in africa, how was the colonization over there.

  21. Horses from Puerto rico were used in the inca wars , The King gave a medal for my islands help .Our small sure footed horses were good for mountain fighting

  22. Thanks for showing a lot from my native culture (a peruvian here saying hi!)

    You should have mentioned that spanish received a lot of help from Huascar supporters and some people who thought the spanish were deities-like beings (at least at first)

  23. Human lust for power and wealth have been using their "One True God" as their excuse to commit innumerable atrocities.

  24. Triste é a sina desta terra,
    das já longas eras idas.
    Triste é o brado que vos chama,
    denuncia, grita e clama,
    A canção, que embora velha,
    soa a surdas almas vivas.

    Desde os tempos em que os filhos
    aguerridos celebravam,
    em meio às verdes folhas, ritos,
    às estrelas e aos prados.
    E então barcos encimados:
    rubras cruzes de martírio,
    que alvas velas ostentavam,

    chegaram e não partiram,
    e ademais, foram além.
    E cantaram a incelença,
    pois tão logo e sem licença,
    ao funeral que reservaram,
    aqui, na "Terra de Ninguém".

    Quando os séculos vieram,
    dentre as matas tão garridas,
    destruídas e o grilhão,
    que a um, ou um milhão,
    em correntes impuseram
    um destino sem saída.

    E então tudo o que havia,
    palco foi, da criação.
    O "atrasado" foi ao "sério",
    na aventura dos Impérios
    transformado e se diria:
    "Luz da Civilização".

  25. The Spaniards never got all of the Inca Gold. I've read that there was an 800 Foot Gold Chain, that was hidden away, The Incas used to bring it out once a Year, in Cuzco, for a Religious Ceremony. They also never got hold of several life size Statues of former Inca Emperors. All of them made of Gold. Nor did they get a Giant Idol of the Sun, also made of Gold. Plus many, many more Inca Treasures. When the Spaniards killed their Emperor, the Incas simply hid all the remaining Treasures, so well, that they have never been found. They are said to be in underground Tunnels under Peru…

  26. The Aztecs and incas, had no knowledge of each other, even though their Empires were rising at the same time. However, I've heard, that Emeralds, from Columbia, (just North of the Inca Empire), were traded all through Central America, until they reached Mexico. Just as they were traded South, into the Inca Empire. So, both Empires were getting Emeralds, from Columbia, and they had Zero idea, that each other's Empires existed…

  27. It's sad how white folks carried on back then nothing's changed they gave it a different name it's called Government….

  28. Mad how even though 90% of the inca population was wiped out by disease, two potential leaders lead thousands to slaughter each other just so they can rule over whats left.

  29. so after Atahualpa fulfilled his side of the promise, giving all the gold in their nation to the spaniards. They didn't release him they just killed him.

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